Thursday, November 25, 2010

Coxsackie Virus

Dulu negara kita pernah kecoh pasal satu npenyakit yang boleh mengakibatkan kematian... H1N1 lah... HFMD stand for Hand Foot Mouth Disease... Hai mesti korangtertanya-tanya napelah aku bercerita pasal benda ni kan... Sebab salah sorang daripada orang tersayang aku kena penyakit yang 'ala-ala' ni lah... Coxsackie Virus... Mungkin korang rasa mustahil tuk dapat penyakit ni... Tapi percayalah... Tak Mustahil...

So, dengan perasaan yang nak tahu sangat apa benda sebenarnya 'Coxsackie Virus' ni... Aku pun googlelah... google sana google sini... Within 0.06second about 3o6 ooo result pops out... So, that is 'Coxsakie Virus'?? And What are the symptoms, types and causes?? What are the treatment and what so ever... So guys... Let's check it out... I got these info from several websites... It kinda useful because now i know a lil bit about this virus...

What is Coxsackie Virus?

Coxsackie virus is a member of the Picornaviridae family of viruses in the genus termed Enterovirus. Coxsackie viruses are subtype members of Enterovirus that have a single strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA) for its genetic material. The Enteroviruses are also referred to as picornaviruses (pico means "small," so, "small RNA viruses"). Coxsackie virus was first isolated from human feces in the town of Coxsackie, New York, in 1948 by G. Dalldorf. Coxsackie virus is also written as coxsackie virus.

What are the types Coxsackie Virus and what can they cause?

Coxsackie Virus can be divided into two groups; Group A and Group B. According to the Wikipedia, based on early observation done by their patogenicity in mice, they conclude that, group A Coxsackie were noted to cause a flaccid paralysis, which was caused by myositis. While group B Coxsackie were noted to cause spastic paralysis due to focal muscle injury and degeneration of neuronal tissue.

Group A.
In general, group A coxsackieviruses tend to infect the skin and mucous membranes, causing herpangina, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), and hand-foot-and-mouth (HFM) disease. Both group A and group B Coxsackie viruses can cause nonspecific febrile illnesses, rashes, upper respiratory tract disease, and aseptic meningitis.

Group B.

Group B coxsackieviruses tend to infect the heart, pleura, pancreas, and liver, causing pleurodynia, myocarditis, pericarditis, and hepatitis. Coxsackie B infection of the heart can lead to pericardial effusion. Muffled heart sounds and pulsus paradoxus are signs of this.

The development of insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) has recently been associated with recent enteroviral infection, particularly coxsackievirus B pancreatitis. This relationship is currently being studied further.


What are the signs and symptoms of Coxsackie Virus?

The most frequent signs and symptoms of Coxsackie Infection start with fever, soar throat, feeling tired, and poor appetite. These sign will last about two or three days. Sores will develop after two or three days of fever and will cause a small blister that often ulcer. Some times people with this disease will have a itches on they palms of the hands and soles of the feet. These symptoms last about seven to ten days before they recovers completely.

  • Hand, foot, and mouth disease, a type of coxsackievirus syndrome, causes painful red blisters in the throat and on the tongue, gums, hard palate, inside of the cheeks, and the palms of hands and soles of the feet.
  • Herpangina, an infection of the throat which causes red-ringed blisters and ulcers on the tonsils and soft palate, the fleshy back portion of the roof of the mouth.
  • Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, an infection that affects the whites of the eyes. Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis usually begins as eye pain, followed quickly by red, watery eyes with swelling, light sensitivity, and blurred vision.


How do people get infected and the risk factors?

Infection usually is spread by fecal-oral contamination, although occasionally the virus is spread by droplets expelled by infected individuals. Items like utensils, diaper-changing tables, and toys that come in contact with body fluids that contain the virus may also transmit them to other individuals. Although people of any age can get infected, the majority of patients identified with Coxsackie infection are children. Pregnant women can pass Coxsackie virus to their newborns, which may cause serious problems for the newborn, so pregnant women need to notify their obstetrician if they exhibit symptoms of the infection, especially if they are near their delivery date.

Risk factors for Coxsackie virus infection include physical contact with any patient with individuals with HFMD symptoms. Infectious virus can be found in feces, saliva, fluid in blisters, and nasal secretions. Even patients who have recovered and have no symptoms may still shed infectious virus for weeks.

What are the treatment?

There is no specific treatment for this typically self-limited disease (the symptoms resolve without specific antiviral treatment in about two to 10 days). However, symptomatic treatment (acetaminophen [Tylenol]) that reduces fever and discomfort is currently recommended. Mouthwashes and sprays may lessen the oral discomfort. Fluids are also suggested to prevent dehydration, however, acidic juices may irritate the mouth ulcers. Cold milk may sooth the oral discomfort.

Some physicians usetopical diphenhydramine (Benadryl) containing gel or liquids to treat the hand and foot discomfort.The relatively rare complications of Coxsackie virus infections (for example, heart or brain infection) require special individualized treatments usually administered by an infectious disease consultant.


There is no vaccine to prevent coxsackievirus infection. Hand washing is the best protection. Remind everyone in your family to wash their hands frequently, particularly after using the toilet (especially those in public places), after changing a diaper, before meals, and before preparing food. Shared toys in child-care centers should be routinely cleaned with a disinfectant because the virus can live on these objects for days.

Kids who are sick with a coxsackievirus infection should be kept out of school or child care for a few days to avoid spreading the infection.

The duration of an infection varies widely. For coxsackie fever without other symptoms, a child's temperature may return to normal within 24 hours, although the average fever lasts 3 to 4 days. Hand, foot, and mouth disease usually lasts for 2 or 3 days, while viral meningitis can take 3 to 7 days to clear up.

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